Monday, May 25, 2020
Poverty and Environment: An Essay on the Poverty-Environment Linkages Josiah Mwangi Ateka School of Economics , Kenyatta University November 2012 1.0 Background Poverty reduction and environmental conservation represent two of the main global challenges. The two targets constitute part of the eight Global Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Arising from the thinking that Environmental degradation and poverty reinforce each other since the poor are both agents and victims of environmental destruction; the poverty-environment hypothesis has become a major concern of international development agencies and policy makers. It is often argued that the poor are often the biggest victims of environmental destruction since they dependÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is argued that this Ã¢â¬Ëinvestment povertyÃ¢â¬â¢ criterion is a stronger criterion than the conventional focus on Ã¢â¬Ëwelfare povertyÃ¢â¬â¢, as households above a welfare-determined poverty line could still be investment poor. 2.0 Poverty and Environment Linkages This section attempts to give a general overview of some of the basic issues in the poverty-environmental degradation debate. The objective is to provide general highlights on the key perspectives of the poverty and environment relationships. This will provide a foundation for the discussions on the theoretical and conceptual framework presented later on in section 3. The poverty-environmental linkage has several dimensions. From an economic growth perspective; rapid economic growth is often seen as the key foundation for achieving poverty reduction. There is a lot empirical evidence in support of this assertion. Therefore while the linkage between economic growth and poverty reduction is generally obvious, the relationship between economic growth and degradation of the environment or and improvement in the environment remains ambiguous or unclear. One part of the poverty-environment hypothesis suggests that economic growth is needed to break the poverty-environment downwardShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Nomadic Culture On The Warlpiri1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Essay 1: Explain how culture shapes and gives meaning to the lives of the people described in the reading. Word Count: 1,176 The Warlpiri Relationship with Nomadic Habitus and Spirituality The indigenous Warlpiri people of Central Australia exhibit an array of cultural beliefs that structure their lives in a way that hugely distinguishes them from modern society, granting the group a meaningful perspective into the world around them. Jackson explores the existential notion of being at home in theRead MoreThe Capitalist Driven Society Of The United States1569 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesalso contributed to a widening gap between the wealthiest and poorest members of society. This essay will examine two of the poorest populations in the United States, the Central Appalachian region of Kentucky and the population in Camden, New Jersey through the lens of two 20/20 segments reported by Diane Sawyer: Ã¢â¬Å"Waiting on the World to ChangeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A Hidden America: Children of the MountainsÃ¢â¬ . This essay will examine the interplay between economic life and family structure in these regions, andRead MoreThe Economic Change Within The Development And The Market2426 Wo rds Ã |Ã 10 PagesThis essay argues that development and the market have become intertwined due to an ideological shift toward neoliberalism. Neoliberalism is commonly associated with particular economic reforms such as de-regulation, trade liberalisation and privatisation (Boas and Gans-Morse, 2009). It is important to focus upon this shift, as the neoliberal ideology has dominated the development discourse since the 1970s. The development industry had been focussed upon a Keynesian state led philosophy since itsRead MoreThe Effects of Poverty on Children Essay1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages When analyzing children growing up in poverty a lot of factors come into play such as their physical, psychological and emotional development. To grow up in poverty can have long term effect on a child. What should be emphasized in analyzing the effects of poverty on children is how it has caused many children around the world to suffer from physical disorders, malnutrition, and even diminishes their capacities to function in society. Poverty has played a major role in the functioning of familiesRead MoreConceptualizing Global Environmental Politics Essay1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis essay will respond to the central problem facing global environmental politics insofar as the resolution of such problems as global warming, the hole in the ozone layer, the loss of biodiversity, and many other transnational environmental issues rests upon some sort of consensus among extremely diverse groups. These are considered global problems not only because of their apocalyptic potential but they are also unique in that the Ã¢â¬Å"terrain where they occur [is] property that could be claimedRead MoreThe Effect of Education on the Development of Different Countries2778 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesattitude from one generation to the other (Compayre and Payne,1899) and interacts on the progress of civilization. The impact of the rapid growth of education is felt at institutional, national and international levels, and these are inter-related. This essay will examine how education influences economic growth, social advancement and environmental improvement. Education plays an essential role in economic growth in less-developed countries. On one hand, Bloom, Canning and Chan claimes (2006) that itRead MoreImpact Of Tourism On The Environment1816 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe purpose of this essay is to analyse the impact of tourism whilst focusing on how different organisations or bodies are making tourists aware of the effects tourism can create. Tourism has a wide ranging impact on the host nation ranging from environmental to economic, tourism makes up large percentages of certain countries total GDP. Amongst normal tourists there is a lack of awareness when it comes to the impact that their holiday has and subsequently the consequences of travelling to certainRead MoreUsing a Particular Service User Group Critically Analyse the Theoretical Principles with Regard to Social Justice and Social Exclusion1409 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe 2011 London riots had many implications for society especially for young people; this essay seeks to analytic ally and critically discuss young offenders involved, using social exclusion and social justice as the main focus. This piece of work will briefly look at the historical context of social exclusion and social justice to create a platform, it will then move on to theoretical principles which offer an understanding of social exclusion and social justice. The implications of social exclusionRead MoreThe Disparities Between African American Women And European Americans1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Elizabeth ward, 2004). The health disparities in African Americans and other racial groups are alarming. For this essay I choose to focus on the empirical facts on the disparities between African American women and European American women who are diagnosed with breast cancer and the disparity in mortality rates. Therefore many of the studies I found linked the disparity to race, poverty and environmental factors. American cancer society estimates, that in 2017 there will be 252,710 new breast c ancerRead MoreMusic1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessince I found my passion I had for it. It definitely has gotten me hooked so therefore it receives a special place in my heart. I love the tone, the harmony, and tempo that it brings together to give it a perfect melody. Growing up in a poverty-stricken environment I turned to music to escape the atrocious things happening in my life; music allows me to feel, lets me express myself, and it changes my mood. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been made fun of more than once for loving the way music makes me feel. Based on some
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Business Ethics Ã¢â¬â Assignment 1 1. The Sales Rep. A sales representative for a struggling computer supply firm has a chance to close a multimillion-dollar deal for an office system to be installed over a two-year period. The machines for the first delivery are in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s warehouse, but the remainder would have to be ordered from the manufacturer. Because the manufacturer is having difficulty meeting the heavy demand for the popular model, the sales representative is not sure that the subsequent deliveries can be made on time. Any delay in converting to the new system would be costly to the customer; however, the blame could be placed on the manufacturer. Should the sales representative close the deal without advising the customerÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As an MD for a brewing company, her job entails for her to be able to target this youth group and get them hooked unto their beer. The case states that there is a lot of competition. They need to find a unique selling point, which makes them diffe rent in selling the same product. The director herself is uncomfortable with the tricks used to attract their attention. I think she should go along with her competition, because even though there is a drinking age of 18+ or 21+, kids hardly follow these rules anyway. Even though she herself doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in encouraging underage drinking, she should be aware that these tricks arenÃ¢â¬â¢t solely responsible for the youth of today and their drinking habits. She can advertise her alcohol, with her brand name without graphical descriptions of parties Ã¢â¬â this way she can compete with her rivals and at the same time incorporate a little bit of what she believes in. Ethically, it would be wrong to encourage something that is against the law, but in my opinion from the business view, when competition is there the aim is to be on top of it. 4. The CEO. The CEO of a midsize producer of a popular line of kitchen appliances is approached about merging with a larger company. The terms offered by the suitor are very advantageous to the CEO, who would receive a large severance package. The shareholders of the firm would also benefit, because the offer for their stock is substantiallyShow MoreRelatedBusiness Ethics : Ethics And Business943 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdiscussions in Business is Ethics. Some people believe that the decisions businesses make in interest of the business has no place in ethics and that they are essentially amoral. These businesses believe that their main objective is to simply make a profit and that it does not affect the success of the business. Whereas some businesses believe that they have to take ethics into consideration, in order for their business to be a success. Richard T. De George (1999) states that ethics and business do notRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReview Nowadays, the concern for business ethics is growing rapidly in the business community around the world. Business ethics are focused on the judgment of decisions taken by managers and their behaviors. The issue regarding these judgments is the norms and cultures that shape these judgments. Business ethics are concerned about the issue, how will the issue be solved and how will it move ahead along the transition analysis as well (Carroll, 2014). Business ethics can be addressed at differentRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBusiness Ethics Varun Shah University of Texas at Dallas Business Ethics Morals are a crucial part of life. Without having principles one would never be able to distinguish the right from wrong and good from evil. Just as it applies to life in general, ethics is an integral part of doing business as well. When we here the term Business Ethics in our work place, we usually do not take it seriously and brush it off saying Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s just a simple set of basic rules like not cheating and so onÃ¢â¬â¢. ThisRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesResource A discusses how ethics is crucial in business. There are three key ideas used to understand this. Firstly, making ethically wrong decisions tend to cause more upset than other general mistakes as purposeful unethical actions are not as easily forgiven or forgotten. Secondly, ethics provides businesses with a broader understanding of everything to do with their business. Business ethics is effectively just business it its larger human context. Thirdly, being unethical ca n tarnish the publicRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Business Ethics Ethics can be viewed as the rules and values that determine goals and actions people should follow when dealing with other human beings. However, business ethics can be defined as moral principles of a business. It examines moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. Generally, it has both normative and descriptive dimensions. Organization practice and career specialization are regarded as normative whereas academics attempting to understand business behaviourRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics757 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdeciding what to do in certain situations, ethics is what guides an individual to act in a way that is good, or right. Those involved in business settings apply ethics to business situations, known as business ethics. It is expected of businesses, small and large, to follow business ethics. There is a particular framework businesses are to follow. However, the reoccurring news headlines of poor business ethics prove differently. Poor busine ss ethics include bribery, corporate accounting scandalsRead MoreEthics And Ethics Of Business Ethics1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics meaning in simple way for average person is what is right from wrong. According to Chris MacDonald (2010)Ã¢â¬ EthicsÃ¢â¬ can be defined as the critical, structured examinations of how we should behave - in particular, how we should constrain the pursuit of self-interest when our actions affect others. Ã¢â¬Å"Business ethics is the applied ethics discipline that address the moral features of commercial activity (Business ethics, 2008).Working in ethical way in business has a lot of benefits which can attractRead MoreBusiness Ethics Essay944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnderstanding Business Ethics Unit 37: National Diploma Assignment brief TASK 1: Scenario: Business ethics - a study of a selected company With growing interest among consumers regarding the business ethics of the businesses brands that consumers buy, Westminster council wants to conduct an independent review of some of the organisations that sell their goods and services in the borough. You have been asked to select one of the following brands and conduct research into their business ethics. Read MoreThe Ethics Of The Business Ethics1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages BUSINESS ETHICS INTRODUCTION:- Presentation Ethics are exceptionally regular and essential good esteem that helps us to take the right choice where we think that it hard to pick between our own advantages and the correct thing to do. We are going to talk about three sections of morals Behavioral morals, Bounded ethicality and last one is irreconcilable situation. As from the names of these parts of morals, its verging on clarifying the significance of it. It clarifies why great individualsRead MoreThe Ethics Of Business Ethics Essay2711 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesBusiness Ethics Business ethics is a type of professional ethics or applied ethics which examines moral problems and ethical principles that come up in a corporate environment. It is applied to every aspect of conducting business. According to Milton Friedman, a company has the responsibility to generate as much revenue as it can while still conforming to the basic rules that society has set. These rules include the ones embodied in customs as well as in law. Similarly, Peter Drucker stated that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Though it was uncommon during the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, some women didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to assume the traditional role of a typical Victorian lady. Such is the case in Kate Chopin s The Awakening; she introduces us to Edna Pontellier a mother and wife during the said era. Throughout the story, we follow Edna s journey of self-discovery and self-expression through emotions, art, and sex thanks to the help of people she meets along the way. Chopin decides to end the book with EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide in an attempt to convey a sense of liberation from her repressed life, but was the reasoning behind her suicide what everyone else thinks? Consequently, this said journey took me along for the ride, and I had no complaints. As Edna figured out who she was, I felt as if I wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The AwakeningÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist is Edna Pontellier; She is a twenty-eight years old mother of two. Consequently, her appearance is slight that of what a mother should look like, she possesses quick and bright eyes, which compliment her thick, wavy, yellowish brown hair (9); While Edna s physique is poise and movement (27). Despite this, Edna does not want to assume the role of a mother; Edna wants to be free from social assumptions of what a lady and even mother should be during the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Independence is her goal, and she is not letting anything, or anyone gets in her way. This is why she has an affair with Robert Lebrun. Edna is symbolized in the story through multiple birds, which in the end tell a story in and of itself Leonce Pontellier, the husband of Edna, is the story s antagonist. He is materialistic, due to him being a wealthy businessman, and also forty years old. His high status came at a cost; he is very concerned with appearance and how others view him.The way to become rich is to make money, my dear Edna, not to save it, he said. He regretted that she did not feel inclined to go with him and select new fixtures. He kissed her goodbye, and told her she was not looking well and must take care of herself. She was unusually pale and very quietÃ¢â¬ (18). He also treats Edna as mere property You are burnt beyond recognition, he added, looking at his wife as oneShow MoreRelatedFeminism In The Awakening1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesissue of feminism, it is a sensitive topic that must be inclusive of all genders. The modern term of Ã¢â¬ËfeminismÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as giving both men and women the same rights and privileges as each other. Basic human rights would give others the notion that this is how all humans should have been treated from the beginning. However, this is far from the truth. Books like The Awakening, give us an inside look at how women were treated around 100 years ago. When Kate Chopin wrote The Awakening, she createdRead MoreFeminism; the Awakening868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Emergence of Feminism In the 19th century women were supposed live by concept of Republican Motherhood. Republican Motherhood is the idea that American women had a few main roles, to stay in their homes, to train their children to be good American citizens and to follow the demands of their husbands. This reinforced the idea of that a domestic womens life should be separate from the public world of men. Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equalRead MoreFeminism In The Awakening1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThough it was not common during the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, some women did not want to assume the traditional role of a typical Victorian lady. In Kate Chopin s The Awakening, this is just the case; she introduces us to Edna Pontellier a mother and wife during the said era. Throughout the story, we follow Edna s journey of self-discovery and self-expression through emotions, art, and sex thanks to the help of people she meets along the way. Chopin decides to end the book with EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide to try to convey aRead MoreFeminism In The Awakening1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTHE AWAKENING LAP TOPIC #3- EXPLORE HOW EACH MAN IN EDNAÃ¢â¬â¢S LIFE ATTEMPTED TO CONTROL AND/OR REPRESS HER EXISTENCE.. NICHOLE NARINEBRIJBASI In the time era of the 1800s, women were regarded as the weaker sex to society. Gender equality wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the focal point of society as yet, leading to the oppressive mindsets of women. Men were viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"superiorÃ¢â¬ because of their masculinity and righteousness that society had implanted into our view of socialRead MoreFeminism In The Awakening1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Awakening LAP Topic 1 By: Lourdes Rivera AP Literature Mr. Amoroso Rivera 1 Courageous, brave, and valiant are all characteristics that are necessary for one to possess in order to be heroic. The actions an individual takes dictates the kind of person they are and the actions of a hero reflect these characteristics. If the world is against a group of people, it takes a heroic person to break away from the oppression set to hold them down. Women have faced tremendous oppression from the ideologyRead MoreThe Awakening Feminism Essay1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAfter reading The Awakening, by Kate Chopin, I believe the text is feminist. Whether Kate Chopin was deliberately writing for early feminists or not, the book has many early feminist ideas and it is shown through the main characters awakening by being eccentric. The author uses Edna Pontellier as an anti-conventional woman, breaking societal laws that govern her life, in search for individuality in a society that represses her. From a readerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, Edna would be a mentallyRead MoreThe Awakening Feminism Essay1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesComing into the nineteenth century, women were looked at as feminist. Ã¢â¬Å"Feminism,Ã¢â¬ as we know the term today, was nonexistent in nineteenth-century America (Cruea 187). Feminist describes as someone embracing the beliefs that all people are entitled to freedom and liberty within reason. Gender, sexu al orientations, skin color, ethnicity, religion, culture or lifestyle should not be considered as a form of discrimination. Women roles, in the nineteenth century, were to take care of the cooking, cleaningRead MoreEssay about Feminism in The Awakening986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the novel The Awakening, by Kate Chopin the critical approach feminism is a major aspect of the novel. According to dictionary.reference.com the word feminism means, Ã¢â¬Å"The doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.Ã¢â¬ The Awakening takes place during the late eighteen hundreds to early nineteen hundreds, in New Orleans. The novel is about Edna Pontellier and her family on a summer vacation. Edna, who is a wife and mother, is inferior to her husbandRead MoreThe Rise Of Feminism In The Awakening By Kate Chopin711 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFeminism is the liberation of women and their rights as human beings. The feminism that we see today started in 1960s , but the issue began way before the 1960s. In the 1890s, Kate Chopin wrote a novella called The Awakening to tell the story of the rise of feminism within a character named Edna. In The Awakening, Kate Chopin creates feminism before itÃ¢â¬â¢s time by using EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward her lovers, the freeness of the scenery, and her motherly attitude. These traits that Edna possesses are extremelyRead MoreAnalysis Of Proto-Feminism In The Awakening By Kate Chopin838 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProto-Feminism is defined as a philosophical idea in which feminism existed in a time period it was expected to be unknown. Before the 20th century, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation was not a familiar concept to society, however a great variety of literature from this time period displayed how women defended themselves for the independence and freedom they lacked. Along with the many novels written in this time period, The Awakening written by Kate Chopin in 1899 justifies this philosophy. Edna Pontell ier, the
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Petroleum Resource Rent Tax In Australia. Answer: Introduction There has been a tax sink hole as the gas multinational fuel companies that exploit LNG in Australia have claimed fifty billion dollars more in relief in one year (Aston, 2017). By building up an additional $51 billion in tax in credits, these MNCs have further delayed any reasonable royalty payment from the enormous export industry in Australia. This means that these energy giants evade payment of their share of tax unethically. This is because the Australian Tax Office submitted a review of the PRRT to Treasurer Scott Morrison that demonstrated that the combined tax credits/carry forward expenditure of the LNG industry surged to $238 billion in the trading period 2015-16, having shot up by $51 billion from $187 billion the past year. This was equivalent to $138 million per day increase over twelve months. The MNCs have taken a relief in the industrys war chest of the tax credits thereby unethically shielding themselves (Chevron, and Shell) from any meaningful PRRTs contribution in its lifetime. This is quite shocking since PRRT is the solely royalty-kind payment that the big LNG projects such as Chevron-, Shell- and Exxon-owned Gorgon must pay in exchange of the billions of dollars in Australian gas extracted and exported to Asia by these MNCs. Thus, evading this tax unethically by failing to disclose information as required is indeed shocking and deprives Australia of the huge dollars in terms of royalty that in fact rightfully belongs to its economy (Smith, 2013). The LNG MNCs solely declared taxable profits of 2.10 billion dollars in the trading year 2015-16. The PRRT stood at forty percent of the taxable profit subsequent to deductible capital alongside exploration expenditure written off against the assessable receipts. Due to the high uplift rates for the deductions compounding over life of projects, certain gas projects might never pay PRRT. There is a need for future projects to evade extremely high uplift rates for carrying forward such deductions into the future years where profits are stronger since currently, these rates are as high as long-term bond rate in addition to 15% points (Aston, 2017). It is against this backdrop that this paper seeks to probe and present a detailed critical evaluation of theaccounting and ethical issues referred to in the Aston (2017) article based on two perspective in relation to Petroleum Rent Tax (PRRT). The evaluation undertakes a comprehensive comparison of the insights from each theory (perspective) and outlines the different impacts on the preparers, users, regulators and the public. Approach to the Research Project To critically evaluate and submit a comprehensive evaluation report on theaccounting and ethical issues referred to by Heath (2007), this paper uses two theories (progressive income tax theory and regressive income tax theory) with respect to PRRT. The evaluation is anchored on a detailed comparison of the insights from each of above income tax theories and highlighting the different impacts of such insights on the financial statement preparers, users, regulators and the public (Mintz Chen, 2012). The paper undertakes a systematic critical review of the articles relating to the above two opposing income tax theories and the AASB 112 Income Taxes to understand the interpretation of the Australian PRRT. This follows the appreciation that the RRRT can only be interpreted within the scope of Accounting Standards AASB 112 Income Taxes. The interpretation 1003 of the Australian PRRT will help in understanding both accounting and ethical issues highlighted by Heath (2007). Both Accounting Standard AASB 112 Income Taxes andAccounting Standard AASB 108 Accounting Policies, Changes inAccounting Estimates and Errors will form key references in this evaluation. The PRRT Assessment Act 1987 will also help in understanding the calculations of the taxable profits. Thus, Australian PRRT will be interpreted in this report as an income tax within AASB 112 scope and hence the MNCs must recognize, measure and present it in accordance with AASB 112. This interpretation will thus apply to: each firm which is required to prepare financial reports in accordance with Part 2M.3 of the Corporation Act 2001 and which is a reporting entry. It will also be applicable to the general purpose financial statement of each other reporting firm; and applies to all financial statement which are, or are held out to be, general purpose financial sta tements. Analysis and Theoretical/Conceptual Application From the Heath (2017), following accounting and ethical issues come out clear. First, in determining the Australian PPRT taxable profit, it is clear that the MNCS did not adhere to the AASB 112 requirements that dictate that PRRT be assessed based on petroleum projects, and subsequently levied at the rate of forty percent on taxable profit of the project. The MNCs did not calculate the taxable profit for the PRRT purposes as the excess of assessable receipts over sum of; (a) the eligible spending incurred, (b) un-deducted/carried forward spending which are compounded yearly at the uplift rate constituting the long-run bond rate plus fifteen percent for exploration spending or in addition to five percent for project operating and development expenditure; and (c) un-deducted exploration spending which is compounded at uplift rate which is transferred from other projects the taxpayer is involved in or, where the taxpayer is a company in a wholly-possessed group, from additional projects within group. The MNCs did not adhere to the provision that requires such non-deductible expenditures as private override royalty payments and income tax. Also, the MNCs did not adhere to the requirements that PRRT be paid in quarterly installments. The requirements for the PRRT payments as deductibles were not adhered to during the determination of taxable income within the confinement of Income Tax Assessment Act 1997. The MNCs unethically failed to apply all the requirements of the AASB 112 that are all applicable to Australian PRRT including such requirements linked to definition, recognition, measurement, presentation, as well as disclosure of the current alongside deferred tax associated with Australian PRRT (Kraal, 2016). This is why the MNCs also reported a mere 2.1 billion dollars as the taxable profit in the disguise of information asymmetry between them and the government, public, users and regulators to deprive the country payment of the correct royalty. Theoretical/Conceptual Application PRRT is the profit-oriented tax levied on petroleum project and has been subsequently applied from 2012, 1 July to include all Australian onshore as well as offshore oil alongside gas projects including the oil shale and coal seam gas projects of the North West Shelf. The PRRT history is traced from the enabling legislation, the PRRT Assessment Act 1987. The parliament passed the Act and became effective on January 15, 1988. PRRT applied to all offshore areas with exemption of Bass Strait and North West Shelf at that time. PRRT has gone through various amendment since introduction starting 1991 through July 1, 2012 when it was extended to onshore oil as well as gas projects including oil shale projects, coal seam gas projects of North West Shelf came into effect. From the above two opposing theories of income tax, it is clear that Australian is using a regressive tax approach that does not effectively capture the income tax (PRRT) as would otherwise be captured by progressive taxation. The resource rent is classically defined as the excess of total project lifetime value emerging from a deposit exploitation over sum of all costs of exploiting the resource including compensation of all factor inputs. The principle underlying the PRRT is to solely tax the rent and leave alone the investors required return to carry out the investment. In principle, however, this should never distort the decisions of investment, in so far as it need not change the pre-tax merits of the investment. In this regard, PRRT remains a neutral tax that can only be captured by progressive taxation. Based on the resource rent definition, a decline in risk linked to investors investment would, ipso facto, decrease the investors minimum required return to carry out the investment hence surging the potential of resource rent of the deposit. The resource rent taxation remains very topical and has enormously featured in deliberations of the resource tax policy in the 1970s. The renewed interest in resource rent taxation is the discourse over how best to share the spoils of recent extractive industries boom as the regressive taxation theorists have failed miserably in term of PRRT capture. Sharing of such spoils remains often marred with brinkmanship between the host economies and the industry, leading to a skyrocketed uncertainty and feasible limitations on investments in these resources in the longer run. The challenge that has to be addressed by the fiscal policy relates to the optimization of revenue from such heterogeneous resource endowment amidst the economic uncertainty without resorting to brinkmanship which always result from regressive income tax theory application to PRRT due to its fiscal rigidities. The fiscal flexibilities and employment of progressive taxes, avail a more orderly as well as predictable footing for effective-re-allocation of benefits between the host economy and the industry when economic conditions alter. The progressive taxations targeting resource rent must maximize the revenue from the resource by optimizing resource exploitation in general as well as optimizing rent available from each resource project. Various taxes have already been designed targeting resource rent capture with a range of extent of accuracy. The PRRT takes the case of a more accurate progressive taxes in relation to resource rent capture. The host country, Australia in the present case, has to balance such advantages against the fiscal risks linked with various kinds of taxes and resources required to guarantee effective PRRT administrations. Experience indicates that pure regressive PRRT could impose an unacceptable degree of fiscal risk on Australia-at best PRRT has been merged with other promising progressive tax instruments. The emerging issues in PRRT application that cannot be effectively addressed by regressive taxation theorists include; can the required rate of return by the investor be arrived at reliably; what proportion of PRRT should be taxed; how should the government set the tax threshold and tax rates; will PRRT be creditable? PRRT further has a reputation for administrative complexities that could weigh against it when regressive taxation is used. A progressive PRRT is one amongst many available instruments for capturing resource rent. The effectiveness of PRRT relies on the revenue potential, fiscal risk as well as administrative costs linked to PRRT use. The advantage that progressive PRRT has over regressive as well as unsustainable fiscal regimes remains the ability to evade damaging brinkmanship. Discussion and Conclusions The experience of several host government with inclusion of Australian government in the latest periods has been that as MNCs earnings have substantially and dramatically grown, the Australian own revenue from these extractive MNCs industries has lagged well behind as well as declined as a percentage of general profitability (a declined fiscal take). The reason behind this, at least partially, is the Common features of such fiscal regimes designed during the 1980s and 1990s that were mainly regressive tax-based. Such Common features of fiscal regimes had included the low royalties as well as flat rate income taxation merged with generous allowances-investment uplifts and accelerated depreciation (Kraal, 2016). These governments have as well as offered tax holidays in depths of depression in mining sector, supported by agreements stabilization. In oil industry, volume prevalence instead of profit-oriented production sharing together with generous provision for cost recovery to entice investors, encompassed restrained government sharing in any escalation in price. These agreements have remained unsuitable to the altered economic conditions of the contemporary Australia. Australian government is aware that windfall taxes are currently on political agenda and hence their introduction would capture profits otherwise, an outcome which would be particularly difficult to accept. Given this backdrop, several host economies have been attempting to regressively tax windfalls of incumbents and imposing stringent entry terms for the new entrants. This has, however, been coupled with rising nationalization and deprival of direct access by private sector to valuable petroleum deposits. The Australian government and extractive MNCs or extractive industries must re-allocate benefits between them in absence of brinkmanship by adopting the progressive PRRT (Kraal, 2013). After all, variable rent potential alongside commodity price volatility have been known phenomena for a number years. What could the solutions be to this challenge? One can argue that better foresight anchored on regressive taxation would be panacea so that fiscal terms might be better tailored to technical as well as economic circumstances which shall prevail in the course of lifetime of resource project. In essence, this is what the Australian government and MNCs investors have attempted in particular project negotiation over the fiscal terms. Nevertheless, experience suggests that any such attempts of forecasting the complete array of feasible economic outcomes over a project lifetime remain fallible (Siu, Picciotto, Mintz Sawyerr, 2015). The Australia is often disadvantaged due to information asymmetry between the government and these MNCs in terms disclosure of taxable profits hence the outcome of dependence on forecasts is probably either in favor of MNCs or barring parties from arriving at a consensus. The fiscal flexibility need to be built into design of the fiscal regime up front in order that financial benefits are re-allocated on the agreed footing if and when the economic conditions alter. This will be favorable for both host economy and the MNCs and would bar the accounting and the ethical issues that have been recognized above including failure by MNCs to fully disclose the useful financial information on their profits as well as intentional delays of royalty payments. The government of Australia can provide this fiscal flexibility via the progressive taxation upon which the share of overall benefits are re-allocated progressively in favor of Australia as the host economy as the general value of benefits surges. Unfortunately, Australian government is still using a regressive fiscal regime which has allowed the MNCs to tax credits or carry forwards which is hurting the populace since there is no royalty payment at the moment despite by MNCs despite the doubling in MNCs profits but halved revenue to the government since 2013 (Kraal, 2012). The progressive taxation must, in principle, maximize the PRRT potential both by surging the resource deposits quantity exploited and uplifting rent availability from each. To control the above accounting and ethical issues or loopholes used by MNCs by manipulating the PRRT and subsequently evading through carry forwards and tax credits, the Australian government should never employ a tax framework whereby the tax rates surges as the function of the price only. The progressive ad-volorem taxation can be integrated since it has been successfully used in Qatar to bar MNCs from manipulating the PRRT. The price-oriented royalty/windfall PRRT ensure that movements of prices remain normally linked to alterations in profitability (Clausing Durst, 2015). This framework disregards the impacts of alterations in cost and output on profitability. There can be a surge in price, however, where unit costs have as well as surged, the generated profits on the pre-tax footing could have stood unchanged or declined and yet tax would still be payable at the hiked rate. Such an approach remains an inaccurate method of capturing resource rent that will culminate in distortion (Kraal Yapa, 2012). The government of Australian should accurately capture this resource rent by making the tax rates a function of the actually achieved profitability but ensure that there is full disclosure on the part of the MNCs. The Australian government need to use the most accurate method for capturing resource rent by directly linking tax rates to return on investment accomplished by the MNCs. In this regard, the government should adopts the Timo Lestes Supplemental Petroleum Tax which is typical progressive resource rent tax. In this structure, the tax base denotes the resource project; the threshold rate of return on investment (16.5%) at which the PRRT would be applicable; and a specified rate (22.5%) is applicable to net profits. Impacts on the Preparers, Users, Regulators and the Public Preparers: the use of ineffective regressive taxation theory by Australian government on PRRT has enabled them to manipulate PRRT through failure to disclose useful financial information on taxable profits and hence benefit their MNCs employers through failing to pay royalties via carry forwards and tax credits. Users; the users of financial information from these MNC have been shortchanged due to failure by the MNCs to disclose the useful financial information on their taxable profits by failing to comply with the AASB 112. Regulators: The regulators have been dealt a blow due to the information asymmetry between them and the MNCs leading to regulatory capture whereby the MNCs have captured the state through their PRRT manipulative actions like carry forwards and tax credits. Public: The have been shortchanged due to failure by the MNCs to delay the payment of their royalties as they capture and manipulate the regulators. Conclusion The identified accounting issues and ethical issues through the MNCs manipulation of the PRRT needs urgent attention. The government of Australia should change from regressive taxation to progressive taxation including the use of such alternative taxation as ad-volorem to help maximize the revenue while not hampering/distorting the investments by MNCs. References Aston, H. (February 13 2017). Tax sink hole: Gas multinationals claim $50 billion more in relief credits in a year . The Sydney Morning Herald, 1-2. https://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/tax-sink-hole-gas-multinationals-claim-50-billion-more-in-relief-credits-in-a-year-20170213-gubmfv.html Clausing, K. A., Durst, M. C. (2015). A Price-Based Royalty Tax?. Kraal, D. (2012). Australia's Resource Rent Tax: The Multi-National Mining Industry Response. Kraal, D. (2013). A grounded theory approach to the minerals resource rent tax. Austl. Tax F., 28, 841. Kraal, D. (2016). Australias petroleum resource rent tax: Paul Keating, Peter Walsh and other game changers. Griffith Law Review, 25(4), 492-524. Kraal, D. (2016). The Petroleum Resource Rent Tax: Overview of primary documents and literature leading to the 1987 legislation. Browser Download This Paper. Kraal, D., Yapa, P. S. (2012). Resource rent taxes: the politics of legislation. Mintz, J., Chen, D. (2012). Capturing economic rents from resources through royalties and taxes. Siu, E. D., Picciotto, S., Mintz, J., Sawyerr, A. (2015). Unitary Taxation in the Extractive Industry Sector. Smith, J. L. (2013). Issues in extractive resource taxation: A review of research methods and models. Resources Policy, 38(3), 320-331.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Get rid of the Electoral College Harvard, Stanford, and Cornell College are all renowned colleges, but have you heard of the Electoral College? It has been in existence for over two hundred years. This is a unique college where the only requirement to participate is that one must be at least eighteen years old. The Electoral College has no campus, meal tickets, football team, or even academics. However, it is the most important college because it helps the American people make one very important decision, determining the President. The Electoral College is not actually a Ã¢â¬Å"college,Ã¢â¬ it is a voting method. This is the only voting method ever used to elect the President; however, it may not represent the votersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices as accurately as other methods. The 2000 presidential election wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a true reflection of the votersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices when Al Gore received over half a million more votes than George Bush, and Bush became the president. We will write a custom essay sample on Get Rid of the Electoral College or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A nationwide popular vote will reflect the votersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices better than the Electoral College; the Electoral College is outdated amp; needs to be wiped out because of the numerous defects it has. In 1787, two things forever changed the face of American politics: First, a group of national leaders drafted the U. S. Constitution and second, they decided the average citizen wasnt knowledgeable enough to elect a president without the bridge of a system known as the Electoral College. The Electoral College was created by the framers of the U. S. Constitution as a compromise for the presidential election process (Bonser, and Dove). At the time, some politicians believed a purely popular election was too reckless and would give too much voting power to highly populated areas in which people were too familiar with a certain presidential candidate. Others objected to the possibility of letting Congress select the president. So the Electoral College was a system that allowed voters to vote for electors, who would then cast their votes for candidates. In the 1836 election, the Democratic-RepublicanÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidential candidate, Martin Van Buren, won both the popular vote and the electoral vote. His main competition was the Whig Party. The Whig Party was a political party active in the early 19th century in the United States. The Whigs hoped to expose the design of the Electoral College by running several different candidates in different areas, picking individuals with a great deal of regional appeal. The Whigs hoped to win a party majority throughout the country with this method, which would then allow them to choose the individual they wished to become President. They were unsuccessful and Martin Van Buren won the election with nearly 60% of the Electoral votes, though his popular vote lead was just over 50%. His running mate, Richard M. Johnson, did not fare so well. 23 Democratic-Republican Electors of Virginia refused to give him their votes. Without those 23 votes, Johnson did not receive a majority vote within the Electoral College. The decision was deferred to the Senate where Johnson was finally elected by a majority vote as the new Vice President. One of the flaws of the Electoral College is that a candidate who wins the national popular vote can lose the overall election. This phenomenon has actually occurred in the past. The most recent occurrence was in the 2000 election. George Bush received 271 electoral votes but lost the nationwide popular vote by half a million votes to Al Gore, who received 266 electoral votes (Ã¢â¬Å"What Is the Electoral College? Ã¢â¬ ). Larger states carry a tremendous amount of power in swaying the presidential election, since their large population allows them to receive a multitude of electoral votes. The Electoral College has been the basis for nearly all of our presidential elections, but it is time to update to a more logical system. The Electoral College is not the best solution to elect the president, as it has become obsolete (Dayen). The Electoral College was a solution for the problems that were relevant when it was first established. Now, these problems cease to exist. The Electoral College was an idea that was feasible when first instituted, because communication was limited and national political parties had yet to be established. Travel and communications are no longer problems. The Electoral College needs to be replaced to fix the current problems, not the problems of the past. The Electoral College makes it possible for citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ votes in certain states to essentially not matter at all. Since all of the electoral votes go toward the candidate that wins the popular vote in a state, if a state has a majority of people who vote for a certain party and a voter votes for the other party, his vote does not have any effect on the election outcome. The Electoral College system is leaving hundreds of thousands of voteÃ¢â¬â¢s discounted and irrelevant. The Electoral College twists each voteÃ¢â¬â¢s worth per state, causing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s desires to be misrepresented. The Electoral College does not always show a distribution of support. A candidate could win the electoral votes in only eleven states and that amount of electoral votes would be enough to become president. Supporters of the Electoral College remarked that the Electoral College would enforce the concept of federalism. Federalism is the division and sharing of powers between the state and national governments. The states, through the Electoral College, are empowered to choose the president and vice president. It restores some of the political balance that states with a large population lose, by benefit of the distribution of the Senate decreed in the Constitution. This is illogical, given that electoral votes are weighted in favor of less populated states. There are many drawbacks to the Electoral College, in terms of campaign effects, that outweigh the benefits. If the presidential election was decided by a national popular vote, instead of the Electoral College, campaigning would broaden to every state (Buttery). Every AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s vote would make an impact on the election outcome and would have the same worth as everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. Getting rid of the Electoral College will not be a walk in the park, but representing the voterÃ¢â¬â¢s choice by implementing a nationwide popular vote would be worth the work. To change the Electoral College, legislators would need to pass a bill to override the Electoral College and establish a nationwide popular vote as the voting method for electing the president. Passing a bill that changes the system for electing the president would be a monumental task. If a bill is successfully passed to change the Electoral College to a nationwide popular vote, it will reduce disagreement about election outcome by lessening the controversy regarding accurate representation of the votersÃ¢â¬â¢ choices.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Argument Essay/ Homosexuality Essay Example Argument Essay/ Homosexuality Essay Argument Essay/ Homosexuality Essay Essay Topic: The Second Sex Argument Essay There are many rights I believe homosexuals should not have. Their life style is an abomination in godÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes! The King James Version of the bible says in Leviticus 20:13, If a man also lies with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them. It is totally a sin to have sexual relations with the same sex. God intended sex to express love to your mate and reproduce. Because I am a Christian, I am utterly against homosexuality! Public affection, marriage, and adoption dealing with homosexuals also rub me the wrong way. First of all, homosexual public affection is not and should never be considered the norm. As much as society is cooping with this situation, it is not appropriate. There are people who want the world to know how ecstatic theyÃ¢â¬â¢re to be in a same sex relationship, so they tend to show off. My cousin in-law, who is a lesbian, is not afraid to show her affection to her partner in public. She likes to grope, kiss, and huge all the time. I remember as a child how you only knew homosexuals by word of mouth or by a close friend or family member. I never saw gays or lesbians walking around flaunting their sexuality. They had to be in a secret society that meets in a secret location at a secret time. My mom had a gay friend she grew up with and he never acted as if he was gay in me presents. He talked a little different, like a woman, but he dressed conservative, wearing suits and ties like a man. My mom explained to me how they would have to keep their life styles on the hush, also known as Ã¢â¬Ëstaying in the closetÃ¢â¬â¢. This means to keep it a secret. Society back then would not allow such things. Secondly, I believe homosexuals should not be able to get married. Marriage is an honor in the sight of god. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to keep throwing my religious opinion in this, but this is what I was raised upon and basically all I rely on. It was made for men and women to share their spiritual enlightment, reproduction, and to have a life time companion. The research shows that Public opinion remains firmly opposed to the redefinition of marriage. A May 2008 Gallup Poll asked the question: Do you think marriages between same-sex couples should or should not be recognized by the law as valid? Respondents opposed homosexual marriage by a margin of 56 percent (opposed) to 40 percent (agreeing). Respondents to a CNN/Opinion Research Corporation poll in October 2007 rejected same-sex marriage by the same margins. My cousin in-law also got married about three years ago. They had to travel to another state just to get married. The point that I am trying to get across is that if homosexual marriages were meant to be you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to sneak off to do it. It would be legalized through out the world! Third of all, homosexuals adopting kids would subject the children to an unstable environment. Kids at a young age will not understand the situation unless you explain it to them thoroughly. If not, they will always wonder why they have two of the same sex parents. My cousin in-law, who has two kids, also is going through the same thing. She no longer has custody of her children because of her life style. She chose this over her family. Her relationship was more important than her taking care of her kids. So her family saw the neglect and decided to take full custody of the kids. Many homosexuals and their sex partners may sincerely believe they can be good parents. But children are not guinea pigs for grand social experiments in redefining marriage, and should not be placed in settings that are unsuitable for raising children. In conclusion, homosexuals should have limitations to their rights. They should stay in the closet like back in the day. Everyone in society is not okay with homosexuality. This life style is an abomination in godÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. Because of my religion I am against homosexual rights. Public affection, marriage, and adoption dealing with homosexuals, to me, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t right! Everyone might not agree with me but this is only my opinion. bible. com/bibleanswers_result. php? id=246 12/01/09 truenews. org/Homosexuality/facts_about_same_sex_marriage. html 12/01/09
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Health care - Essay Example Moreover, there are trademarks and trade dress infringement in the field of health care services, and the intellectual property group deals with claims that are made by organizations for the liability that are arising out of intellectual property. 2. Various business models are becoming powerful, though others that are not effective thus, a manager should focus on models that develop customer loyalty or barrier to entry. Therefore, the things that are renewed automatically offer a way of facilitating customer loyalty, whereby they work to alter the providers. In this case, managers are motivated to manage their accounts online thus difficult to discontinue the relationship with the customers. Nevertheless, these unique models have become a source of barrier for nontraditional entry, due to the high level of sophistication. In the current business environment, organizations are seeking to develop a unique business model to mitigate the threat of entry by the others to reduce